An advance directive is a voluntary, legal document that articulates an individual’s wishes regarding future medical care and treatment.
By Gloria Brigham, EdM, MN, RN
As highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals have preferences about their life and future. These preferences arise from values, cultural norms, knowledge and available information. They are influenced by past experiences and the consequences of previous decisions. Periodically, preferences change.
Health care planning for the future is important to ensure that your wishes are known and followed when you are unable to speak for yourself. Sharing what matters to you most (in writing) is one way to clearly communicate with loved ones and health care providers.
What is an advance directive?
An advance directive is a voluntary, legal document that articulates an individual’s wishes regarding future medical care and treatment. It is valid from the time of completion until the end of life. In Washington state, there are two types of advance directive that can be completed by adults 18 and older:
- Durable power of attorney for health care – The durable power of attorney for health care is also called a medical power of attorney or health care agent. This is an individual that you choose to make health care decisions (on your behalf) if you are unable to make them for yourself. The health care agent cannot be under 18 years old, your health care provider or an administrator/employee of a health care facility where you receive care or live.
- Health care directive – A health care directive is also referred to as a living will. This written document includes the type of medical care and treatment that you wish to have near end-of-life, if any. This document informs health care professionals of your preferences in the event of an accident or life-threatening illness when you are unable to speak for yourself.
Who should complete an advance directive?
It is advised that everyone over the age of 18 have an advance directive. The reality is that no one knows when an event might occur that renders us incapable of making our own decisions.
How is an advance directive completed?
Fill out advance directive forms found on the Honoring Choices Pacific Northwest website1. An attorney is not needed for an advance directive. Once your advance directive forms are complete, they are legally valid when notarized or signed by two “disinterested” witnesses. Witnesses must be 18 years of age and cannot be related to you by blood or marriage and cannot be your attending provider or an employee of your provider or the health care facility where you are a patient or receive care.
How is POLST different from an advance directive?
According to the Washington State Medical Association, Portable Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) is a medical order that addresses emergency care wishes for seriously ill individuals. POLST is not for everyone. It is intended for individuals in poor health who want to have the choice not to pursue selected treatments in response to a health emergency2.
Inspiring individuals to complete an advance directive supports individual choice and autonomy regarding personal care preferences at end of life. Once complete, advance directive copies are provided to the people close to you, such as your health care agent, loved ones, and your health care providers. If advance directive changes are necessary, share those changes and provide an updated copy of the advance directive to those that matter to you. For additional information visit www.honoringchoicespnw.org.
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